The Scientists

On the subject areas of Cosmologica, hyperlinks to biographies of scientists that has participated in the developement of these exciting theories can be found. On this page, links to all these biographies has been gathered. The persons are both listed in alphabethical and chronological order after birth but also after year of receiving the Nobel Prize (for those persons of relevance), and importance to science (I'm going to need help with this one!). I have also more recently added Bruce Medalists, that is the highest award dedicated to astronomy only and Fields Medal, that has become the inofficial Nobel Prize of mathematics (that it only is awarded each fourth year makes it even more rare) and finally the Wolf Prize, that is a prize from Israel that is faster with awarding important discoveries than the Nobel Prize.

Alphabetical order

Ahlfors, Lars (1907- )
Alembert, Jean le Ronde d' (1717-1783)
Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta (1908-1995)
Alpher, Ralph A. (1921- )
Atiyah, Michael (1929- )
Baade, Wilhelm Heinrich Walter (1893-1960)
Bardeen, John (1908-1991)
Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784-1846)
Bethe, Hans (1906-2005)
Beurling, Arne Carl-August (1905-1986)
Bianchi, Luigi (1856-1928)
Bohr, Niels (1885-1962)
Bolyai, János (1802-1860)
Bondi, Hermann (1919- )
Born, Max (1882-1970)
Carleson, Lennart (?- )
Cartan, Élie (1869-1951)
Cartan, Henri (1904- )
Carter, Brandon (1942- )
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910-1995)
Christoffel, Elwin Bruno (1829-1900)
Cohen, Paul Joseph (1934- )
Cronin, James Watson (1931- )
Dicke, Robert Henry (1916-1997)
Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice (1902-1984)
Douglas, Jesse (1897- )
Eddington, Arthur Stanley (1882-1944)
Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)
Erdös, Paul (1913-1996)
Euler, Leonhard (1707-1783)
Fermat, Pierre de (1601-1665)
Feynman, Richard Phillip (1918-1988)
Fitch, Val Longsdon (1923- )
FitzGerald, George Francis (1851-1901)
Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph (1749-1827)
Fowler, William (1911-1995)
Friedmann, Alexander Alexandrovitch (1888-1925)
Galois, Evariste (1811-1832)
Gamov, George (1904-1968)
Gauss, Karl Friedrich (1777-1855)
Germain, Sophie (1776-1831)
Glashow, Sheldon Lee (1932- )
Gold, Thomas (?- )
Green, Michael (?- )
Grossmann, Marcel (1878-1936)
Guth, Alan (?- )
Hamilton, Sir William Rowan (1805-1865)
Hawking, Stephen William (1942- )
Heisenberg, Werner Karl (1901-1976)
Herman, Robert (1914- ?)
Hertzsprung, Ejnar (1873-1967)
Higgs, Peter (?- )
Hilbert, David (1862-1943)
Hooft, Gerard 't (1946- )
Hoyle, Sir Fred (1915-2001)
Hubble, Edwin (1889-1953)
Huygens, Christiaan (1629-1695)
Hörmander, Lars (1931- )
Israel, Werner (1931- )
Kerr, Roy Patrick (1934- )
Klein, Oskar (1894-1977)
Koch, Helge von (1870-1924)
Kovalevskaja, Sofia (1850-1891)
Kodaira, Kunihiko (1917- )
Lagrange, Joseph Louis (1736-1813)
Landau, Lev Davidovich (1908-1968)
Laplace, Pierre Simon de (1749-1827)
Larmor, Sir Joseph (1857-1942)
Lemaître, Georges Édouard (1894-1966)
Levi-Civita, Tullio (1873-1941)
Lifshitz, Evgeny Michailovich (1915-1985)
Linde, Andrei (1948- )
Lobachevskij, Nikolai Ivanovich (1793-1856)
Lorentz, Henrik Antoon (1853-1928)
Mach, Ernst (1838-1916)
Maxwell, James Clerk (1831-1879)
Michelson, Albert Abraham (1852-1931)
Milnor, John Willard (1931- )
Minkowski, Hermann (1864-1909)
Misner, Charles W. (1932- )
Mittag-Leffler, Gösta Magnus (1846-1927)
Neumann, John von (1903-1957)
Newton, Isaac (1642-1727)
Nilson, Peter (1937-1998)
Noether, Amalie Emmy (1882-1935)
Novikov, Igor Dmitrievich (1935- )
Olbers, Heinrich Wilhelm (1758-1840)
Oppenheimer, Julius Robert (1904-1967)
Page, Don (?- )
Pascal, Blaise (1623-1662)
Pauli, Wolfgang Ernst (1900-1958)
Peebles, Philip James Edward (1935- )
Penrose, Sir Roger (1931- )
Penzias, Arno Allan (1933- )
Pickering, Edward Charles (1846-1919)
Planck, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig (1858-1947)
Poincare, Henri (1854-1912)
Poisson, Siméon Denis (1781-1840)
Ricci-Curbastro, Gregorio (1853-1925)
Riemann, Georg Friedrich Bernhard (1826-1866)
Riesz, Marcel (1886-1969)
Rubin, Vera (1928- )
Sacharov, Andrei Dmitrievich (1921-1990)
Sagan, Carl (1934-1996)
Salam, Abdus (1926- )
Sandage, Allan Rex (1926- )
Schrödinger, Erwin (1887-1961)
Schwartz, Laurent (1915- )
Schwarz, John H. (1941- )
Schwarzschild, Karl (1873-1916)
Schwarzschild, Martin (1912-1997)
Schwinger, Julian Seymour (1918- )
Sciama, Dennis (1926- )
Selberg, Atle (1917- )
Shannon, Claude (1916- )
Sitter, Willem de (1872-1934)
Smarr, Larry (194?- )
Sommerfeld, Arnold (1868-1951)
Starobinsky, Alexi (?- )
Teller, Edward (1908-2003)
Teukolsky, Saul A. (1947- )
Thorne, Kip Stephen (1940- )
Tomonaga, Shinichiro (1906-1979)
Weinberg, Steven (1933- )
Wheeler, John Archibald (1911- )
Wiles, Andrew (1953- )
Wilson, Robert Woodrow (1936- )
Witten, Edward (1951- )
Zel'dovich, Yakov Borisovich (1914-1987)
Zwicky, Fritz (1898-1974)

Order of birth

Fermat, Pierre de (1601-1665)
Pascal, Blaise (1623-1662)
Huygens, Christiaan (1629-1695)
Newton, Isaac (1642-1727)
Euler, Leonhard (1707-1783)
Alembert, Jean le Ronde d' (1717-1783)
Lagrange, Joseph Louis (1736-1813)
Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph (1749-1827)
Laplace, Pierre Simon de (1749-1827)
Olbers, Heinrich Wilhelm (1758-1840)
Germain, Sophie (1776-1831)
Gauss, Karl Friedrich (1777-1855)
Poisson, Siméon Denis (1781-1840)
Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784-1846)
Lobachevskij, Nikolai Ivanovich (1793-1856)
Bolyai, János (1802-1860)
Hamilton, Sir William Rowan (1805-1865)
Galois, Evariste (1811-1832)
Riemann, Georg Friedrich Bernhard (1826-1866)
Christoffel, Elwin Bruno (1829-1900)
Maxwell, James Clerk (1831-1879)
Mach, Ernst (1838-1916)
Mittag-Leffler, Gösta Magnus (1846-1927)
Pickering, Edward Charles (1846-1919)
Kovalevskaja, Sofia (1850-1891)
FitzGerald, George Francis (1851-1901)
Michelson, Albert Abraham (1852-1931)
Lorentz, Henrik Antoon (1853-1928)
Ricci-Curbastro, Gregorio (1853-1925)
Poincare, Henri (1854-1912)
Bianchi, Luigi (1856-1928)
Larmor, Sir Joseph (1857-1942)
Planck, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig (1858-1947)
Hilbert, David (1862-1943)
Minkowski, Hermann (1864-1909)
Sommerfeld, Arnold (1868-1951)
Cartan, Élie (1869-1951)
Koch, Helge von (1870-1924)
Sitter, Willem de (1872-1934)
Hertzsprung, Ejnar (1873-1967)
Levi-Civita, Tullio (1873-1941)
Schwarzschild, Karl (1873-1916)
Grossmann, Marcel (1878-1936)
Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)
Noether, Amalie Emmy (1882-1935)
Born, Max (1882-1970)
Eddington, Arthur Stanley (1882-1944)
Bohr, Niels (1885-1962)
Riesz, Marcel (1886-1969)
Schrödinger, Erwin (1887-1961)
Friedmann, Alexander Alexandrovitch (1888-1925)
Hubble, Edwin (1889-1953)
Baade, Wilhelm Heinrich Walter (1893-1960)
Lemaître, Georges Édouard (1894-1966)
Klein, Oskar (1894-1977)
Douglas, Jesse (1897- )
Zwicky, Fritz (1898-1974)
Pauli, Wolfgang Ernst (1900-1958)
Heisenberg, Werner Karl (1901-1976)
Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice (1902-1984)
Neumann, John von (1903-1957)
Gamov, George (1904-1968)
Oppenheimer, Julius Robert (1904-1967)
Cartan, Henri (1904- )
Beurling, Arne Carl-August (1905-1986)
Tomonaga, Shinichiro (1906-1979)
Bethe, Hans (1906- )
Ahlfors, Lars (1907- )
Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta (1908-1995)
Teller, Edward (1908-2003)
Bardeen, John (1908-1991)
Landau, Lev Davidovich (1908-1968)
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910-1995)
Wheeler, John Archibald (1911- )
Fowler, William (1911-1995)
Schwarzschild, Martin (1912-1997)
Erdös, Paul (1913-1996)

Herman, Robert (1914- ?)
Zel'dovich, Yakov Borisovich (1914-1987)
Hoyle, Sir Fred (1915-2001)
Lifshitz, Evgeny Michailovich (1915-1985)
Schwartz, Laurent (1915- )
Dicke, Robert Henry (1916-1997)
Shannon, Claude (1916- )
Selberg, Atle (1917- )
Kodaira, Kunihiko (1917- )
Feynman, Richard Phillip (1918-1988)
Schwinger, Julian Seymour (1918- )
Bondi, Hermann (1919- )
Alpher, Ralph A. (1921- )
Sacharov, Andrei Dmitrievich (1921-1990)
Fitch, Val Longsdon (1923- )
Salam, Abdus (1926- )
Sandage, Allan Rex (1926- )
Sciama, Dennis (1926- )
Rubin, Vera (1928- )
Atiyah, Michael (1929- )
Hörmander, Lars (1931- )
Milnor, John (1931- )
Cronin, James Watson (1931- )
Israel, Werner (1931- )
Penrose, Sir Roger (1931- )
Glashow, Sheldon Lee (1932- )
Misner, Charles W. (1932- )
Penzias, Arno Allan (1933- )
Weinberg, Steven (1933- )
Kerr, Roy Patrick (1934- )
Cohen, Paul (1934- )
Sagan, Carl (1934-1996)
Novikov, Igor Dmitrievich (1935- )
Peebles, Philip James Edward (1935- )
Wilson, Robert Woodrow (1936- )
Nilson, Peter (1937-1998)
Thorne, Kip Stephen (1940- )
Schwarz, John H. (1941- )
Hawking, Stephen William (1942- )
Carter, Brandon (1942- )
Hooft, Gerard 't (1946- )
Teukolsky, Saul (1947- )
Linde, Andrei (1948- )
Witten, Edward (1951- )
Wiles, Andrew (1953- )

Carleson, Lennart (?- )
Gold, Thomas (?- )
Green, Michael (?- )
Guth, Alan (?- )
Higgs, Peter (?- )
Page, Don (?- )
Starobinsky, Alexi (?- )
Smarr, Larry (194?- )

Baksidan av Nobelprismedaljen i fysik och kemiNobel Prize Laureates

1902 Lorentz, Henrik Antoon (1853-1928)
1907 Michelson, Albert Abraham (1852-1931)
1918 Planck, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig (1858-1947)
1921 Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)
1922 Bohr, Niels (1885-1962)
1932 Heisenberg, Werner Karl (1901-1976)
1933 Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice (1902-1984)
1945 Pauli, Wolfgang Ernst (1900-1958)
1956 Bardeen, John (1908-1991)
1962 Landau, Lev Davidovich (1908-1968)
1965 Tomonaga, Shinichiro (1906-1979)
1965
Schwinger, Julian Seymour (1918- )
1965 Feynman, Richard Phillip (1918-1988)
1967 Bethe, Hans (1906- )
1970 Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta (1908-1995)
1972 Bardeen, John (1908-1991)
1978 Penzias, Arno Allan (1933- )
1978 Wilson, Robert Woodrow (1936- )
1979
Salam, Abdus (1926- )
1979 Glashow, Sheldon Lee (1932- )
1979 Weinberg, Steven (1933- )
1980
Fitch, Val Longsdon (1923- )
1980 Cronin, James Watson (1931- )
1983 Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910-1995)
1999 Hooft, Gerard 't (1946- )

Importance to Mankind

  1. Newton, Isaac (1642-1727)
  2. Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)
  3. Arkimedes (287 f Kr-212 f Kr)
  4. Gauss, Karl Friedrich (1777-1855)
  5. Maxwell, James Clerk (1831-1879)
  6. Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice (1902-1984)
  7. Feynman, Richard Phillip (1918-1988)
  8. Euler, Leonhard (1707-1783)
  9. Wheeler, John Archibald (1911- )
  10. Bohr, Niels (1885-1962)
  11. Heisenberg, Werner Karl (1901-1976)
  12. Schrödinger, Erwin (1887-1961)
  13. Zel'dovich, Yakov Borisovich (1914-1987)
  14. Hawking, Stephen William (1942- )
  15. Penrose, Sir Roger (1931- )
  16. Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910-1995)
  17. Riemann, Georg Friedrich Bernhard (1826-1866)

Framsidan av BrucemedaljenBruce Medalists

1908 Pickering, Edward Charles (1846-1919)
1911 Poincare, Henri (1854-1912)
1924
Eddington, Arthur Stanley (1882-1944)
1931 Sitter, Willem de (1872-1934)
1937 Hertzsprung, Ejnar (1873-1967)
1938 Hubble, Edwin (1889-1953)
1953
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910-1995)
1970 Hoyle, Sir Fred (1915-2001)
1975 Sandage, Allan Rex (1926- )
1983 Zel'dovich, Yakov Borisovich (1914-1987)
1995 Peebles, Philip James Edward (1935- )
2001 Bethe, Hans (1906- )

Framsidan av Fields medalj illustrerande ArchimedesFields Medalists

1936 Ahlfors, Lars (1907- )
1936 Douglas, Jesse (1897- )
1950 Schwartz, Laurent (1915- )
1950 Selberg, Atle (1917- )
1954 Kodaira, Kunihiko (1917- )
1954 Serre, Jean-Pierre
1958 Roth, Klaus
1958 Thom, Rene
1962 Hörmander, Lars (1931- )
1962 Milnor, John (1931- )
1966 Atiyah, Michael (1929- )
1966 Cohen, Paul (1934- )
1970 Baker, Alan
1970 Hironaka, Heisuke
1970 Novikov, Serge
1970 Thompson, John
1974 Bombieri, Enrico
1974 Mumford, David
1978 Deligue, Pierre
1978 Fefferman, Charles
1978 Margulis, Gregori
1982 Connes, Alain
1982 Thurston, William
1986 Donaldson, Simon
1986 Faltings, Gerd
1986 Freedman, Michael
1990 Drinfeld, Vladimir
1990 Jones, Vaughan
1990 Mori, Shigefumi
1990
Witten, Edward (1951- )
1994 Lions, Pierre-Louis
1994 Yoccoz, Jean-Christophe
1994 Bourgain, Jean
1994 Zelmanov, Efim
1998 Borcherds, Richard E.
1998 Gowers, W. Timothy
1998 Kontsevich, Maxim
1998 McMullen, Curtis T.
2002 Laurent Lafforgue
2002 Vladimir Voevodskij

Wolf Prizes in Physics

1978 Wu, Chien-Shiung
1979 Uhlenbeck, George
1979 Occhialini, Giuseppe
1980 Fisher, Michael
1980 Kadanoff, Leo
1980 Wilson, Kenneth
1981 Dyson, Freeman
1981 Hooft, Gerard 't (1946- )
1981 Weisskopf, Victor
1982 Lederman, Leon
1982 Perl, Martin
1983/4 Hahn, Erwin
1983/4 Hirsh, Peter
1983/4 Maiman, Theodore
1984/5 Herring, Conyers
1984/5 Nozieres, Philippe
1986 Feigenbaum, Mitchell
1986 Libchaber, Albert
1987 Friedman, Herbert
1987 Rossi, Bruno
1987 Giacconi, Riccardo
1988 Penrose, Sir Roger (1931- )
1988
Hawking, Stephen William (1942- )
1990 Gennes, Pierre-Gilles de
1990 Thouless, David
1991 Goldhaber, Maurice
1991 Telegdi, Valentine
1992 Taylor, Joseph
1993 Mandelbrot, Benoit
1994/5 Ginzburg, Vitaly
1994/5 Nambu, Yoichiro
1996/7 Wheeler, John Archibald (1911- )
1998 Aharonov, Yakir
1998 Berry, Sir Michael
1999 Shechtman, Dan
2000 Davis, Raymond
2000 Koshiba, Masatoshi
2001 -
2002/3 Halperin, Bertrand
2002/3 Leggett, Anthony
2004 Brout, Robert / Elglert, Francois
2004 Higgs, Peter
2005 Kleppner, Daniel

Wolf Prizes in Mathematics

1978 Gelfand, Izrail
1978 Siegel, Carl
1979 Leray, Jean
1979 Weil, Andre
1980 Cartan, Henri (1904- )
1980 Kolmogorov, Andrei
1981 Ahlfors, Lars (1907- )
1981 Zariski, Oscar
1982 Whitney, Hassler
1982 Krein, Mark
1983/4 Chern, Shiing
1983/4 Erdös, Paul (1913-1996)
1984/5 Kodaira, Kunihiko (1917- )
1984/5 Lewy, Hans
1986 Eilenberg, Samuel
1986 Selberg, Atle
1987 Ito, Kiyoshi
1987 Lax, Peter
1988 Hirzebruch, Friedrich
1988 Hörmander, Lars (1931- )
1989 Calderon, Alberto
1989 Milnor, John Willard (1931- )
1990 Giorgi, Ennio de
1990 Piatetski-Shapiro, Ilya
1992 Carleson, Lennart (?- )
1992 Thompson, John
1993 Gromov, Mikhael
1993 Tits, Jacques
1994/5 Moser, Jurgen
1995/6 Langlands, Robert (1936- )
1995/6 Wiles, Andrew (1953- )
1996/7 Keller, Joseph
1996/7 Sinai, Yakov
1999 Lovasz, Laszlo
1999 Stein, Elias
2000 Bott, Raoul
2000 Serre, Jean-Pierre
2001 Arnold, Vladimir
2001 Shelah, Saharon
2002/3 Sato, Mikio
2002/3 Tate, John
2004 -
2005 Margulis, Gregory
2005 Novikov, Sergei

Science is a world dominated by men for many reasons, but several interesting exceptions. To enlighten these women I have compiled a page over "Women of Science".

The probably best reference on the Web for scientific biographies is the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.

An excellent place on the Web for people interested in mathematics is St. Andrews University mathematics server that has a list over the members of Royal Society of London.

The probably most interesting mathematical collaboration during the 20th century is probably the Bourbaki group that published many thick volumes about mathematics under the pseudonyme Nicolas Bourbaki. The last name is taken after a French general under the Napoleon era. This group consisted mainly of Henri Cartan, Jean Dieudonné, André Weil and Alexander Grothendieck. They were trying to modernize French mathmematics.

The most cited scientists in physics the last ten years gives a big hint about the importance of the scientist. Also other interesting information exists on In-cities.

American Institute of Physics has an interesting collection of history about scientists.

Peoples Archive has recorded video interviews with "great thinkers, creators, and achievers of our time".

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